In his book City of Sokrates: An Introduction to Classical Athens, J. Roberts argues that older than tragedy and comedy was a misogynistic tradition in Greek literature, reaching back at least as far as Hesiod.

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Though most common in men, misogyny also exists in and is practiced by women against other women or even themselves.

Misogyny functions as an ideology or belief system that has accompanied patriarchal, or male-dominated societies for thousands of years and continues to place women in subordinate positions with limited access to power and decision making.

[…] Aristotle contended that women exist as natural deformities or imperfect males […] Ever since, women in Western cultures have internalised their role as societal scapegoats, influenced in the twenty-first century by multimedia objectification of women with its culturally sanctioned self-loathing and fixations on plastic surgery, anorexia and bulimia.

In 2012, primarily in response to events occurring in the Australian Parliament, the Macquarie Dictionary (which documents Australian English and New Zealand English) expanded the definition to include not only hatred of women but also "entrenched prejudices against women".

He says, "This thing is truly heroic." Euripides' reputation as a misogynist is also evidenced in another source; in Deipnosophistae (Banquet of the Learned), Athenaeus has one of the diners quoting Hieronymus of Cardia, who confirms that the view was widespread, while offering Sophocles' comment on the matter: Euripides the poet, also, was much addicted to women: at all events Hieronymus in his Historical Commentaries speaks as follows,—"When some one told Sophocles that Euripides was a woman-hater, 'He may be,' said he, 'in his tragedies, but in his bed he is very fond of women.' Despite Euripides' reputation, Antipater is not the only writer to see appreciation of women in his writing.

Katherine Henderson and Barbara Mc Manus state that he "showed more empathy for women than any other ancient writer", citing "relatively modern critics" to support their claim.Here, misogyny is the first in a short list of three "disaffections"—women (misogunian), wine (misoinian, μισοινίαν) and humanity (misanthrōpian, μισανθρωπίαν).) is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls.Misogyny can be manifested in numerous ways, including social exclusion, sex discrimination, hostility, androcentrism, patriarchy, and male privilege ideas, belittling of women, violence against women, and sexual objectification of women.In 2012 the Macquarie Dictionary (which documents Australian English and New Zealand English) expanded the definition to include not only hatred of women but also "entrenched prejudices against women". is a central part of sexist prejudice and ideology and, as such, is an important basis for the oppression of females in male-dominated societies.Misogyny is manifested in many different ways, from jokes to pornography to violence to the self-contempt women may be taught to feel toward their own bodies.