Evidence of discrimination against Chinese Indonesians can be found throughout the history of Indonesia, although government policies implemented since 1998 have attempted to redress this.Resentment of ethnic Chinese economic aptitude grew in the 1950s as native Indonesian merchants felt they could not remain competitive.

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Indonesia's 2010 census reported more than 2.8 million self-identified ethnic Chinese: 1.20 percent of the country's population.

However other source stated that there are about 10 to 12 million Chinese living in the country, mostly are half Chinese like Peranakan, Straits Chinese, etc.

and other Indonesians who have Chinese descendant, making up 5-6% of Indonesia population.

The development of local Chinese society and culture is based upon three pillars: clan associations, ethnic media, and Chinese-language schools.

Yìndùníxīyà Huárén), are Indonesians descended from various Chinese ethnic groups, particularly Han.

Chinese came to Indonesia as workers both directly and through Maritime Southeast Asia.

Their population grew rapidly during the colonial period when workers were contracted from their home provinces in southern China.

Under the Dutch ethnic classification policy, Chinese Indonesians were considered "foreign orientals"; as such, they struggled to enter the colonial and national sociopolitical scene, despite successes in their economic endeavors.

These flourished during the period of Chinese nationalism in the final years of China's Qing Dynasty and through the Second Sino-Japanese War; however, differences in the object of nationalist sentiments brought about a split in the population.

One group supported political reforms in mainland China, while others worked towards improved status in local politics.

The New Order government (1967–1998) dismantled the pillars of ethnic Chinese identity in favor of assimilation policies as a solution to the "Chinese Problem".