The Chair will be responsible for submitting a report to the Minister of Transport, which will include findings and recommendations, no later than 18 months after his appointment.

(PDF version) which requires a comprehensive review of the operation of the Act and certain other acts pertaining to the economic regulation of transportation.

The Review will be guided by the Terms of Reference which establish the scope for the Review.

These follow: Given the urgency created by the recent backlog in grain deliveries from the 2013-14 crop year, grain transportation will be given priority consideration.

The Review will consider the provisions of the Act that are relevant to the transportation of grain by rail, some of which could apply more broadly to the rail-based supply chain for all commodities, taking into account the broader goal of a commercially based, market-driven, multi-modal transportation system that delivers the best possible service in support of economic growth and prosperity.

The Review will also examine the extent to which the national transportation system has the capacity and adaptability that will allow it, and its users, to respond effectively to evolving international and domestic conditions and markets.

This will include examining major global and national trends relevant to transportation; projecting freight capacity needs across the system; examining whether existing or planned capacity and performance improvements will be responsive to these needs and periodic demands for surge capacity; and advising on possible steps to help ensure that the national transportation system has the capacity and nimbleness to support economic activity across all sectors over the medium- and long-term.

Further details on these and related subjects to be considered by the Review may be provided by the Minister to the Chair, and may be supplemented or clarified from time to time at the Minister's discretion.

The Review will be conducted at arm’s length from the Government of Canada.

All states provide medical exemptions, and some state laws also offer exemptions for religious and/or philosophical reasons.

State laws also establish mechanisms for enforcement of school vaccination requirements and exemptions.

Studies have shown that vaccine exemptions tend to cluster geographically, making some communities at greater risk for outbreaks (Wang et al; Lieu et al; other clustering references).